Some people have kidney dysplasia, a kidney is congenital; or because of a tumor, trauma, donation to remove a kidney, and only one kidney in the body, what adverse effects does this have on the body?
I. One or two kidneys are like a football team
I believe many people have seen football matches. I use football to talk about the kidneys. Each football team has 23 players, but only 11 players play in each game. The other players are backup or substitute. When the players on the field are tired, injured, and sent off, the reserve players will be replaced. Even if the player who was sent off can’t be replaced on the spot, the next game can still be added.
If many players are injured or red cards, but as long as 11 players can be guaranteed to play, there will be no problem in normal competition. But if there are too many injuries, a game will not be enough for 11 people, then the ball will be difficult to kick. Of course, this is just a metaphor. In fact, football games rarely happen to make up for 11 people.
II. The kidney has great potential
The kidney consists of nephrons with glomeruli as the core. Normal people have about 2.4 million glomeruli, each with 1.2 million kidneys. Under normal circumstances, only 1/4 to 1/3 of the 600,000 to 800,000 glomeruli are working. When encountering infection, fatigue, poisoning, drugs, etc., more glomeruli may also be involved. Therefore, the potential of the kidneys is still very large.
Early kidney damage, even if many glomeruli are destroyed, kidney function is not affected, and serum creatinine is normal. However, when the glomerulus continues to be destroyed and the number of lesions exceeds more than half of the total, renal function is affected and blood creatinine is elevated. That is to say, when blood creatinine rises, almost half of the glomeruli have been destroyed.
III. What are the health risks of a single kidney?
In general, congenital single kidney, due to the formation of a small kidney, a single kidney is developed, a kidney can basically replace the function of two kidneys of normal people, the life expectancy of patients is similar to ordinary people, and there is basically no impact in life.
And the day after the single nephrectomy, there is only one kidney left, if the function of this kidney is normal, basically no adverse effects on the body. But at this time, the potential of the kidneys has dropped significantly, and there are not many “substitute players”. If you do not pay attention to kidney protection, kidney function may soon drop.
If there are basic diseases leading to kidney damage such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperuricemia before nephrectomy, the function of the two kidneys is not perfect, and after a kidney is removed, the renal function will be significantly reduced.
IV. The attention of single kidney patients
After leaving one kidney, the single kidney will naturally become a “baby”, and the “workload” that a single kidney will bear will also increase, so it should be taken care of. Common protection measures are:
1. Strict control of blood pressure: Hypertension is the most important injury factor to the kidney. Patients with single kidney should strictly control blood pressure below 140/90mmHg, preferably below 130/80mmHg. The five first-line antihypertensive drugs recommended in our guideline have no damage to the kidney and can be used with confidence.
2. Eat less salt, drink plenty of water: salt intake increases kidney burden, salt should be controlled. Low salt and plenty of water can increase the amount of urine and reduce the concentration of drugs and metabolic waste (such as uric acid) in the kidneys to reduce the damage to the kidneys. In addition, regular urination and urine scouring are also the best for the urinary tract. health care.
3. Low-fat, moderate protein diet: On the one hand, the body’s demand for protein and other nutrients is certain, ex
cessive intake of high protein is harmful to the body; on the other hand, we often say metabolic waste such as creatinine, urea nitrogen And uric acid is a metabolite of protein foods such as meat and seafood. A high-protein diet is also a burden on the kidneys.
4. Strict control of high blood sugar, high blood lipids and high uric acid: all three have direct damage to the kidneys, especially diabetes, is the main risk factor. The clinical guidelines have clear control standards for all three, and strict control is the best kidney-protecting measure.
5. Avoid drug abuse: This is a common problem. At present, the kidney damage caused by drugs is gradually increasing. These drugs include western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and so-called health care products.
6. Regular physical examination: regardless of any disease, early detection has a good therapeutic effect. For the kidneys, routine urine tests are both valuable and economical, and routine urine and other tests should be performed on a regular basis.