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It is hot and sweaty, and it is the high season of kidney stones. Today I talk about the topic of kidney stones.

Kidney stones refer to urinary system diseases caused by abnormal accumulation of hard substances in the kidneys (such as calcium, oxalic acid, uric acid, cystine, etc.), which are common and frequently-occurring diseases of the urinary system.

According to the stone composition, kidney stones are divided into calcium oxalate stones, urate stones, calcium phosphate stones, etc., among which calcium oxalate stones are the most common, accounting for 71% to 84%. Calcium oxalate stone is characterized by hard, non-fragile, rough, irregular, and easy to damage the urethra to cause hematuria.

Stones can occur in any part of the urinary system, but almost all of them are formed in the kidneys (kidney and kidney pelvis) and then discharged into the ureter and bladder.

If the stone is small, it will be excreted in the urine during the activity, and there may be no symptoms; if the stone is large, the movement in the renal pelvis is very small, generally no symptoms, or only the waist is sore and discomfort, and there may be pain or pain when the physical activity increases. Dull pain; not too small stones, discharged into the ureter, but not to the urethral stenosis, where the card stimulates the ureteral fistula, causing renal colic, showing a painful waist and abdomen knife, showing paroxysmal.

Kidney stones occur mostly in young adults, more men than women, and the incidence of men and women is about 2 to 3:1. The incidence rate of high-protein diet is higher in the southern and coastal cities of China, and the incidence of high-protein diet is higher in the economically developed areas. The incidence of kidney stones in obese patients and high-temperature workers is also higher.

The uric acid in the urine combines with the calcium in the urine to form calcium oxalate stone. The high oxalic acid plays a central role in the formation of kidney stones. The concentration of oxalic acid increases and the concentration of uric acid increases. Similarly, hyperuricemia also plays a central role in the formation of uric acid kidney stones. Common causes of kidney stone formation are illustrated by common calcium oxalate stones and urate stones:

1, excessive intake of oxalic acid: a large intake of oxalic acid-rich foods (such as chocolate, nuts, spinach, leeks, spinach, mustard, beets, leeks, bamboo shoots, etc.) and animal protein, salt, etc., can lead to blood oxalic acid and urine Increased oxalic acid content;

2, blindly add vitamin C: ascorbic acid (vitamin C) can be converted to oxalic acid, resulting in increased urinary acid levels;

3, chronic intestinal infections: chronic enteritis and other chronic intestinal infections lead to increased oxalic acid absorption, elevated levels of blood oxalic acid and uric acid;

4, long-term abuse of antibiotics: humans from the age of 3, there will be an anaerobic bacteria called oxalic acid bacteria in the intestines, this bacteria can break down oxalic acid in the intestinal tract, so that oxalic acid absorption is reduced. However, if long-term abuse of antibiotics causes the bacteria to be lost in the intestine, the intestinal absorption of oxalic acid will increase;

5, long-term low-calcium diet: high-calcium food and high oxalic acid food with food, calcium and oxalic acid in the intestines combined into a calcium oxalate that is not easily absorbed, calcium and oxalic acid will reduce the absorption, but reduce blood oxalic acid concentration. If the calcium content of the food is insufficient, it will increase the absorption of oxalic acid;

6, recurrent urinary tract infections: infected inflammatory complexes easily combine with calcium and other substances to form stones;

7, urinary tract obstruction: after urinary tract obstruction, first, the concentration of oxalic acid and calcium in the urine at the obstruction is high, easy to combine to form stones, and second, urinary tract obstruction is prone to urinary tract infection, and easy to form stones;

8, sorghum diet: long-term intake of animal viscera, alcohol, fructose drinks, etc. lead to increased blood uric acid, uric acid concentration also increased;

9, drug effects: Certain drugs, such as uric acid-lowering drug phenyl bromide promote uric acid excretion, so that uric acid concentration is significantly increased, easy to form uric acid stones. Therefore, benzbromarone is contraindicated in patients with kidney stones;

10, usually drink less water: hot days and sweats, or usually less water to reduce urine output, various components in the urine increased concentration to form stones. Drinking less water and less urine are the reasons why ordinary people are prone to stones and are easily overlooked.

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