The prevalence of diabetes in normal-weight population was 7.8%, and the prevalence of diabetes in obese people was 15.4%, about twice that of normal-weight people.
When random blood sugar ≥11.1mmol / L, and typical symptoms of diabetes: polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, unexplained weight loss, can be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes.
Why do diabetics have unexplained weight loss? Why does subcutaneous injection of insulin increase weight? Fat can be atrophy at the injection site, and fat hyperplasia can occur. What happened?
1. Insulin function
The function of insulin is mainly to transport glucose in the blood to other cells, thereby reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood.
The main mechanism of insulin lowering blood sugar is: using glucose as raw material, synthesizing glycogen (liver, skeletal muscle); converting glucose into fatty acid, synthesizing fat (fat tissue).
Insulin not only promotes glycogen synthesis, but also inhibits the breakdown of glycogen into glucose; it not only promotes fat synthesis, but also inhibits the breakdown of fat into fatty acids.
Of course, insulin also has a function of promoting protein synthesis.
In a word, the systemic function of insulin is to promote synthesis!
2. Insulin resistance
Insulin resistance is mainly manifested by the fact that a normal amount of insulin is reduced in the amount of glucose (transport) from the blood, which can cause hyperglycemia.
The main manifestations of liver resistance to insulin resistance are: decreased ability of insulin to promote glycogen synthesis, decreased ability to inhibit glycogen decomposition; results: increased glucose released into the blood by the liver, causing blood sugar to rise.
The main manifestations of fat on insulin resistance are: the ability of insulin to promote fat synthesis is reduced, and the ability to inhibit lipolysis is reduced; the result is: fatty acids released into the blood increase, causing fatty liver and dyslipidemia.
3. Unexplained weight loss
The sensitivity of insulin is closely related to the amount of body fat (especially the amount of abdominal fat): the more severe the obesity, the stronger the resistance to insulin.
Patients with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance to varying degrees.
For obese patients, insulin resistance is characterized by decreased insulin’s ability to inhibit lipolysis and increased fat breakdown; when the amount of food is constant and the amount of exercise is constant, “unexplained weight loss” occurs.
4. Injecting insulin can increase weight
When oral hypoglycemic agents are not effective or contraindicated, patients with type 2 diabetes require subcutaneous insulin injections. The most serious adverse reaction to insulin injection is hypoglycemia, and the most common adverse reaction is a moderate increase in body weight.
Fat atrophy at the injection site is due to fat dissolution caused by impure insulin preparation; fat hyperplasia at the injection site is due to increased fat synthesis due to insulin itself.
In short, any drug has side effects. Controlling diet to reduce body weight and maintaining proper exercise to reduce insulin resistance are effective measures to prevent and treat diabetes.