Vitamin D used to be called “vitamin” and is now called “D hormone.” The study found that vitamin D is not only involved in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, promotes bone development, but also has many potential functions, such as the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and tumors. However, there are few effective!
1. Excessive oral vitamin D can cause hypercalcemia. A moderate degree of hypercalcemia will completely inhibit children’s growth and development for more than 6 months, and the effect on height cannot be completely corrected.
2. Hypertensive patients taking diuretics should not take vitamin D without authorization. The diuretics hydrochlorothiazide and indapamide can cause hypercalcemia.
I. The main source of vitamin D
In addition to oral vitamin D supplements, there are two sources of vitamin D: ultraviolet radiation on the body’s own synthesis; dietary intake.
The results of the study showed that, in adults, in the summer, the body’s skin, exposed to sunlight for 10 minutes, can produce about 10,000 U of vitamin D3.
Wild fatty fish and mushrooms are rich in vitamin D. Other plants and animals contain only a small amount of vitamin D.
II. Diagnostic Criteria for Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin D is metabolized in the human body into more than 40 metabolites such as 25-OH-D (calcidiol) and 1α,25-(OH)2-D (calcitriol).
Both vitamin D and calcitriol have no biological activity. Calcitriol is biologically active and can bind directly to vitamin D receptors. It is also called “D hormone.”
Oxygediol is the main form of vitamin D in the blood, the half-life of up to 19 days, reflecting the lack of vitamin D is an objective indicator.
III. Vitamin D deficiency at high risk
Domestic survey results: 40% to 100% of pregnant women and newborns lack vitamin D; about 30% to 70% of children in the North lack vitamin D, and about 10% to 40% of children in the South lack vitamin D.
For obese children and adults, as well as taking anti-epileptic drugs, glucocorticoids and other drugs, at least need to add 2 to 3 times the dose of vitamin D.
1. in the regulation of bone calcium metabolism, vitamin D3 activity is 2 to 4 times that of vitamin D2. Therefore, vitamin D3 is recommended as a vitamin D supplement.
2. infants and young children should use vitamin D drops (each containing 400U vitamin D3); careful selection of cod liver oil (containing vitamin D and vitamin A).
Nutritional intake of vitamin D recommendations (for clinical reference only)
Clinically-used calcium carbonate D3 tablets and chewable tablets
IV. Vitamin D, which has been affirmed
1. Treatment of chronic hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia.
Vitamin D is converted to calcitriol in the body. Calcitriol binds to the vitamin D receptor in the small intestine, which promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine; and increases renal reabsorption of calcium ions.
2. Prevent and treat rickets, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and osteomalacia with chronic renal insufficiency.
Vegetarian population, indoor working population, night work population, obese children and adults, elderly people with a history of falls and/or non-traumatic fractures, hepatobiliary disease, small bowel disease, gastrectomy, etc. are among those at high risk of vitamin D deficiency .
3. Treatment of hypoparathyroidism.
The mechanism of vitamin D lowering the risk of falls in the elderly
Simultaneous vitamin D and calcium supplementation can reduce the risk of fractures and falls. At present, there is no scientific evidence to support the use of calcium alone to reduce the risk of fracture, and vitamin D supplementation alone may not be effective.
V. Vitamin D, unrecognized effects
1. Reduce the risk of diabetes.
The islet beta cells contain vitamin D receptors and activating enzymes; studies have found that vitamin D deficiency is associated with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes; early childhood vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
However, a number of double-blind, randomized, controlled drug trials have shown that vitamin D-deficient pre-diabetic patients do not reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the short-term or long-term, or even large doses of vitamin D supplementation.
2. Reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Vitamin D receptor and 1α-hydroxylase exist in the myocardium and vascular smooth muscle; Serum cortisol levels in patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure are lower than those in the general population; Vitamin D participates in cardiovascular disease via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Protective effects.
However, there have also been studies that high vitamin D levels may lead to coronary heart disease; in animal experiments, injection of vitamin D in mice can induce atherosclerosis in the aorta of mice; cardiovascular risk (especially myocardial infarction) will increase with vitamin D supplementation.
3. Reduce cancer risk.
Laboratory studies have shown that calcitriol can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer; clinical observations indicate that the incidence of colorectal cancer is negatively correlated with vitamin D deficiency.
However, a 7-year study of 36,282 postmenopausal women suggested that daily vitamin D3 supplementation had no effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer.