Alzheimer’s disease may have originated from some unknown type of diabetes!
This rather shocking hypothesis is expected to open up new avenues for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and even to find preventive measures.
“Alzheimer’s disease is diabetes in the brain.” This remark first aroused great repercussions in the field of neurology. These assertions were made by two highly respected scientists: Suzanne de la Monte of Brown University and Suzanne Craft of Wake Forest University Medical Center.
Although the two did not work together, they reached the same conclusion. They all believe that the brain lesions in Alzheimer’s disease patients are caused by ordinary insulin resistance.
Susan DeLamonte (Neuropathologist, Brown University, USA): “At the end of Alzheimer’s disease, the activity of insulin receptors in the brain is reduced by 80%.”
In the past 10 years, there have been confusing signs that there is a link between this neurodegenerative disease and type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes manifests as cells that cause long-term hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance.
Caroline Sanz, diabetes specialist at the Pasteur Clinic in Toulouse, France, stated: “Dozens of studies have shown that type 2 diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease by 1.5 to 2 times.” Includes people who have not been diagnosed with diabetes but have already experienced initial symptoms.
In July 2013, Raymond Turner of Georgetown University in the United States accidentally discovered that 43% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease were in pre-diabetes.
However, even if type 2 diabetes is clearly a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, it may not be the cause.
Biologist David Bloom from the University of Lille in France and the INSERM research group on Alzheimer’s disease and tumopathy-associated unit (tau protein) lesions Blum confirmed: “The so-called diabetes will increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, usually refers to the impact of systemic diabetes. There is no sign that type 2 diabetes-specific somatic cells on insulin resistance can be induced in the brain The same phenomenon.” Moreover, the brain is naturally blessed by the blood-brain barrier, and regardless of how type 2 diabetes damages the body, it is difficult to injure the brain.
Therefore, not all patients with diabetes will have Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, not all patients with Alzheimer’s disease are diabetic patients.
For this reason, Susan DeLamonte hopes to add “type 3 diabetes” in addition to the already named type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes specifically targets the brain, leading to neurodegenerative diseases.
“There is no denying that there are many common mechanisms for diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease,” acknowledged Florence Pasquier, a neurologist at the University Hospital of Lille, France.
The brain lesions of Alzheimer’s disease may be caused by neuronal abnormal resistance to insulin.
As early as 2005, Susan de Lamont pointed out after dissecting the brain of Alzheimer’s patients that the role of insulin in the brain gradually weakened during the development of the disease. “At the end of the course of the disease, the activity of the insulin receptor is 80% lower than that of the normal insulin receptor in the brain. In addition, the degree of insulin binding to the receptor is also much worse,” she said. The cells of diabetic patients become less and less sensitive to insulin secreted by the pancreas to regulate blood glucose, and neurons damaged by Alzheimer’s disease appear to be resistant to the same hormone.
And this change has absolutely no effect on neurons. “Insulin is necessary for glucose to enter healthy brain neurons. It is also involved in the maintenance and repair of synapses. If the action of insulin is disturbed, neurons will be damaged.” Florens Pasquier Explains, “Insulin resistance also enhances oxidative stress and inflammatory response mechanisms that promote degenerative changes in neurons.”
Another confusing thing is that traditional therapies for type 2 diabetes have shown some efficacy in Alzheimer’s disease. Olivier Thibault of the University of Kentucky in the United States pointed out: “An animal model has shown that thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) used to increase insulin sensitivity can also improve the recognition of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Know the situation.”
In 2012, the research team of Freda Miller of the University of Toronto in Canada pointed out that metformin, a representative drug for the treatment of diabetes, can promote the growth of mouse neurons and improve their learning ability.
Metformin, a first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Human trials have not yet started, but Florens Paskiyer pointed out: “Some epidemiological studies seem to indicate that if patients with both diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease take metformin, the latter’s disease course will develop slower.”
The hypothesis of type 3 diabetes has not been unanimously approved by the academic community. Carolina Sands pointed out: “Excessive sugar is enough to trigger microvascular disease in the brain, which may lead to a decrease in the ability of the brain to accumulate anti-amyloid plaques.” Amyloid plaques are typical symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, it Also known as “senile plaque,” is the result of abnormal deposition of amyloid outside neurons.
On the other hand, David Bloom’s team has demonstrated in mice experiments last year that although obesity increases the related lesions of Alzheimer’s disease caused by massive accumulation of tau protein in neurons, Increase memory loss, but it will not bring insulin resistance. The biologist commented: “It seems that insulin resistance is not a necessary condition for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Other dysfunctions, especially those of the lipid metabolism pathway, may explain obesity, diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. The connection between Hymer disease.”
Does this mean that Alzheimer’s disease, like the other two diseases, is also a metabolic disease? If this is indeed the case, then not only will there be new treatments, it may even be considered for prevention, which was totally unthinkable before!
Flores Paskier concluded: “Eating better and keeping the movement naturally does not prevent the emergence of Alzheimer’s disease. However, it seems more and more apparent that delaying the outbreak of the disease and inhibiting the progression of the disease course will become more and more obvious. “Alzheimer’s disease can be removed from the list of incurable diseases.