In 1999, the WHO announced that obesity was a chronic metabolic disease caused by multiple factors.
Obesity is characterized by an increase in the volume and number of fat cells in the body, an abnormal increase in the percentage of body fat, and excessive fat deposition in the body.
Obesity is closely related to hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, etc. It has become a global epidemic that threatens human health.
In this era of “skinny for beauty,” many people want to be able to lie down at home and lean into a flash of lightning.
In order to lose weight, some people choose to eat weight loss products. The source of weight loss products is varied.
In the overwhelming variety of weight-loss advertisements, we must have a clear understanding: such as slimming tea, L-carnitine, enzymes, meal replacement, etc., many of which are not qualified to call it “medicine.”
Some are not even health products. These unknown weight loss products also bring about worrying safety issues.
You may ask, since these products can not eat, that the regular “medicine” weight loss drugs can eat it? Today pharmacists talk about those things about diet pills.
Is there a real and effective diet pill? some!
We must have heard of: “I’m really thin by eating some weight loss medicine!”
In the short term, real and effective may be true.
However, real, effective, and safe long-term effectiveness are different concepts.
Information on diet pills has been updated very quickly. These days, they say that they are good. They may be removed from the market in a few days.
The reason is that the clinical application of diet pills has always been plagued by many serious adverse reactions.
Look again, where does the “effect” of diet pills come from?
Diet pills can be divided into four categories according to the mechanism of action:
- Diarrhea, reduce body moisture, reduce weight;
- Increased energy consumption of drugs;
- Acts on the gastrointestinal tract, inhibits digestion and absorption of the gastrointestinal tract;
- It acts on the central nervous system and suppresses appetite.
Having said so much, did you feel that you did not see the figure of diet pills?
Is there a long-term effective and safe diet pill?
We’ll not talk about diarrhea drugs now, this is a matter of opinion.
There are currently no diet pills specifically designed to increase energy expenditure and increase basal metabolic rate.
However, some drugs may have these aspects.
Such as hormone drugs thyroid hormone, growth hormone and so on. These drugs can reduce body weight by increasing the metabolic rate, but the use of hormone drugs can accelerate heart rate, increase myocardial oxygen consumption, induce angina, tension, sweating and other side effects, do you dare to use it?
The above can not be used, that appetite suppressant drugs can use it?
The appetite is regulated by the feeding center of the hypothalamic poplar center and the hypothalamic lateral area. Changes in catecholamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system pathway described above, such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin, may cause feeding behavior. change.
Most of the appetite suppressant drugs affect the synthesis, release and reuptake of these transmitters in the hypothalamus, so as to achieve therapeutic goals of suppressing appetite, reducing food intake, and reducing weight. It looks very scientific, but the appetite suppression diet pills also have a history of blood and tears.
I. Drugs acting on the catecholamine pathway:
Phentermine: Because of its pronounced central nervous system excitement and addiction, foreign countries have long been banned for weight loss treatment;
II. Drugs that act on the serotonin pathway:
1. Fenfluramine: It was very popular in Europe and the United States in the 1990s. However, 33 patients with high doses of fenfluramine had pulmonary hypertension and heart valve damage. For this reason, Fenfluramine also escaped the banned fate.
2. Chlorocyanine: In 2012, the US FDA approved the listing of lorcaserin. In 2016, Japanese pharmaceutical companies launched a sustained-release preparation of chlorasicin in the United States. Chlorophylline and fenfluramine belong to the same class of drugs, the advantage of which is that the target organ for action is limited to brain tissue, and therefore it does not cause the occurrence of valvular heart disease due to activation of the serotonin receptor near the heart.
The main side effects are: headache, fatigue, dry mouth and so on. The drug’s instructions showed that patients who could not lose weight by 5% after 12 weeks of use should stop the treatment of the drug, because continuing treatment will not make the patient benefit clinically.
III. Serotonin and Catecholamine Dual Inhibitors
Drugs that act on both of these pathways can have weight loss effects. Can the double-channel inhibitors not make people lose weight and become a lightning bolt?
Imagination is always wonderful. Did you hear about “Sibutramine?” Its main ingredient is sibutramine (a dual inhibitor of serotonin and catecholamines).
Taking sibutramine is more prone to headaches, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation and insomnia and other adverse reactions, especially its impact on cardiovascular events can not be ignored. In January 2010, the European Commission for Pharmaceutical Products for Human Use stated that sibutramine may increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes and stop its use in the European Union.
IV. Drugs that inhibit intestinal digestion and absorption
Here, the obese people said that they were so pessimistic that they really couldn’t be saved? Do not worry, there are drugs that inhibit intestinal digestion and absorption.
In 1987, Roche developed Orlistat (Xenical). Orlistat is the only clinical drug in China currently dedicated to the treatment of obesity.
Orlistat: is a lipase inhibitor. In order to digest food fat, the human body must first break down fat into absorbable fatty acids, which requires the participation of lipase from the gastrointestinal tract. Orlistat can bind these lipases and make them inactive. Unabsorbed triglycerides and cholesterol are excreted with the stool to achieve weight loss. However, Orlistat will only play a better role in the diet if there is oil intake.
Main side effects: The most important side effect of orlistat is gastrointestinal symptoms, which is related to the drug’s prevention of fat absorption, manifested as gastrointestinal deflation, oily spots, stool sensation, fatness and stool frequency.
Therefore, orlistat is not recommended in patients with gastrointestinal disorders, cholestasis, or gastrointestinal surgery.
Since it inhibits fat absorption, the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins must also be concerned. In addition, the US FDA warned in May 2010 that the presence of orlistat may cause serious liver damage.
Previously, the FDA confirmed a total of 13 cases of severe liver damage during the use of orlistat from 1999 to 2009, of which 2 cases died due to the failure and 3 cases required liver transplantation. However, the FDA also believes that based on the current data, the association between orlistat and severe liver damage cannot be confirmed.
In March 2011, the China Center for Adverse Drug Reactions issued the 36th “ADR Report” to pay attention to the safety of Orlistat.
As of December 31, 2010, more than 120 cases of Orlistat were reported in the case report database of the China National Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center. Major adverse reactions were constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, menstrual disorders, and rashes.
Therefore, it is recommended that consumers carefully read the instructions and rationally use the drug according to the instructions for the treatment of obesity and overweight.
When there are serious adverse reactions related symptoms should seek medical advice.
Physicians and pharmacists should follow the instructions to guide patients in the correct medication.
It is recommended that relevant drug manufacturers inform medical personnel about drug risks, strengthen consumer education, and guide consumers to use orlistat for self-medication.