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Haemophilia is a monogenic X-linked recessive disease characterized by a disrupted clotting cascade. Deficiency of procoagulant factor VIII (FVIII) in haemophilia A, or FIX in haemophilia B, results in uncontrolled bleeding episodes. Intra-articular and intramuscular bleeding are the major clinical manifestations of haemophilia. Recurrent joint bleeding causes synovial proliferation and inflammation that contribute to haemophilic arthropathy. Over the long term, the resulting permanent joint deformation is painful and limits motion, which severely affects quality of life.

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