When friends and family meet, the spicy elbow, sauce and barbecue are on the table. When we face this oily fat, do we eat or not? After such a piece of fat meat is eaten, what effect will it have on our cardiovascular system besides putting on weight?
After fat is eaten, our blood lipids will increase. Excessive blood lipids can alter the composition and flow rate of blood and produce a series of pathological changes in our cardiovascular system.
1. Hyperlipidemia can directly cause dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells and increased permeability of vascular endothelial cells
The lipid droplets that enter the blood vessel wall activate the mononuclear/macrophage phagocytic system. After the macrophages engulf lipid droplets, they turn into round, large, transparent foam-like cells called foam cells. Macrophages can also attract mononuclear cells in the blood, accumulate mononuclear cells, stimulate the production of various growth factors and cytokines, and further damage endothelial cells.
2. Vascular endothelial cells undergo changes in the structure and function of endothelial cells under the mechanism described above.
The intima of the blood vessel becomes smooth and intact from the beginning, which promotes increased platelet adhesion, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and secretion of stroma.
3. The role of inflammation
This effect runs through the entire process of the onset, progression, and complications of the lesion. Macrophages can produce a variety of biologically active substances, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. These substances further promote the occurrence of inflammation.
4. Vascular intimal changes
Due to deep lipid stimulation, platelets, monocytes attached to the vascular endothelium, etc. promote smooth muscle cell proliferation. At this time, the vascular endothelium becomes significantly thicker and harder. The shape of the intima changes accordingly.
These are the causes of vascular lesions caused by hyperlipidemia. These causes are the basis of vascular lesions, which can cause changes in the blood vessels as seen below.
- Fat pattern formation
On the arterial intima, there are large spots of yellow cap needles or stripes of varying lengths. The stripes are about 1-2 mm wide, flat or slightly raised. It can be found under the microscope that these are the products of the accumulation of a large number of foam cells.
- Fibrous plaque
Irregular uplifted plaque scattered across the intimal surface of the vessel. At the beginning, it was yellow or gray-yellow, and later it became porcelain white due to the increase of collagen fibers on the surface of the plaque and the glassy changes. It was shaped like a solidified candle oil. Plaque sizes are unequal and can be combined.
- Atherosclerotic plaque
Vascular intima can be seen as a yellowish patch that bulges toward the surface and presses deeper. Cut open yellow porridge-like material. Cholesterol crystallized and calcified under the microscope, surrounded by granulation tissue and inflammatory cells.
Endothelial lesions in the lesions expose the collagen fibers of the vessel wall, and platelets locally aggregate to form thrombi, resulting in ischemia and infarction.
- Other changes
Such as plaque hemorrhage, rupture and ulceration. Calcium salt deposition can make blood vessels become hard and brittle and easy to break. Aneurysm formation or dissection causes aneurysm.
It seems that long-term hyperlipidemia can indeed affect the cardiovascular system. Today, we eat a piece of fat and there will only be slight changes. However, the long-term diet is unreasonable and lacks exercise. This change may occur and may cause serious consequences such as coronary heart disease and cerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, we must start from the usual bit by bit, develop good living habits, and let healthy life always surround us.