Metformin has been used clinically for 60 years. With excellent sugar control efficacy and good drug safety, metformin is currently the core drug for global diabetes control. In recent years, some new research findings have emerged for metformin. What are the new hotspot findings?
1. Regulate the intestinal flora
The study found that metformin can reduce glycemia by regulating intestinal flora. When metformin is used in diabetic patients, the composition and function of microorganisms in the gut of the organism can be favorably changed, thereby enhancing the production of special types of short-chain fatty acids. To hypoglycemic effect.
The study also well explained that the gastrointestinal side effects of metformin, such as bloating, may be caused by the presence of more E. coli in the gut of the body after treatment.
2. Cardiovascular protection
Metformin reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with newly diagnosed and already existing cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes, and is even considered to be the only hypoglycemic drug with a clear cardiovascular benefit.
Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases include dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and obesity, among which metformin plays a direct or indirect role in cardiovascular protection by controlling the above risk factors.
3. Decrease the BMI of obese children before puberty
Metformin has been shown to have a role in the treatment of obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. For obese children, studies have also found that metformin can significantly reduce BMI and obesity-related cardiovascular function in prepubertal obese children.
However, no significant benefit was observed in adolescent children. It may be that adolescent physiological and hormonal changes affect the effectiveness of metformin.
4. Anti-tumor effect
The anti-tumor effect of metformin has attracted widespread attention. Whether it is a clinical investigation, an in vitro study, or an animal experiment, there are a lot of exciting results for the anti-tumor effects of metformin. Several meta-analysis results show that metformin treatment and mammary glands Cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer and other cancers are associated with reduced risk.
Metformin’s anti-tumor mechanism is very complex, and its specific mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. In addition, its anti-tumor effect still requires rigorous design of forward-looking studies to further clarify.
5. Anti-infective effect
In recent years, metformin has been used as a clinical and basic experimental evidence for the use of “antibiotics”, such as can significantly improve the clinical prognosis of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis; increase the survival rate of mice infected with T. cruzi disease; effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, green pus Bacillus, hepatitis B virus and other activities.
At the same time, its special value in sepsis has received extensive attention, but at present, it still needs to be banned for serious infections and trauma.
6. Prevent the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm
Some studies have unexpectedly found that metformin can prevent the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm, slow the rate of tumor expansion, and even prevent rupture. Its mechanism may be related to the anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering vascular endothelial protective effect of metformin, but it is currently lacking sufficient levels of evidence. Randomized controlled trials to clarify the unique medical value of metformin.
7. Longer life
Some studies have pointed out that taking small doses of metformin regularly can prolong the lifespan of mice; the aging rate of metformin-treated C. elegans organisms is significantly reduced; long-term treatment with metformin can significantly prolong the life span of patients with type 2 diabetes, making them more likely than non-diabetics. Live longer. It can be seen that it can reduce the all-cause mortality and increase the life expectancy of diabetic patients by controlling the aging and reducing the mortality of specific diseases.
8. Reduce the incidence of gallstones
A follow-up study in Taiwan, which lasted 12 years, found that the use of metformin was relatively greater in non-users than in non-users. As the dose increased within a certain range, the incidence of gallstones gradually decreased, and long-term use and lower incidence of gallstones were observed. The rate is related, and the relevant mechanism still needs further study.
9. Treatment of fragile X syndrome
The main clinical manifestations of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) are autism, low language and social skills, hyperactivity, and poor social response. The study found that metformin can restore the major abnormal phenotypes in FXS mouse models and improve the irritability, social responsiveness, and motility of FXS patients. However, because the research evidence level is too low, more and more rigorous randomized controlled clinical trials are still needed to verify the therapeutic value of metformin in FXS.
10. Anti-inflammatory effects
Metformin also has some benefits for inflammatory disease. It can protect cardiovascular immune response by inhibiting the expression of NF-κB. It can significantly reduce the level of inflammatory cytokines in the blood and reduce the inflammatory parameters of the kidney to protect the kidney. For type II collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis Rat models have significant anti-inflammatory and joint protection effects.
It can be seen that metformin can exert a hypoglycemic effect through a series of mechanisms, has a certain therapeutic effect on various diseases, and has a wide range of application prospects.