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On April 28, 2018, the State Drug Administration of China conditionally approved the listing of a nine-valent human papilloma virus vaccine (HPV vaccine) for the prevention of cervical cancer.

The HPV vaccine is the first vaccine in the world to include cancer as an indication in its instructions. At this point, all HPV vaccine varieties that have been marketed worldwide are available in China.

Answers

Question 1: Will the vaccination be infected?

The HPV vaccine uses a special protein shell on the virus to trigger the body’s immunity. Therefore, the vaccine itself is not a virus. It is a protein. It does not have the function of a virus and will not cause virus infection.

Question 2: What are the differences between bivalent, trivalent, and nine-price?

Bivalent vaccine: It can prevent infection by HPV 16 and 18 viruses. More than 70% of cervical cancers are caused by these two viruses.

Tetravalent vaccine: It can prevent the infection of HPV type 16, 18, 6, 11 virus. In addition to preventing 70% of cervical cancer, genital warts can also be prevented (HPV types 6 and 11 are not high-risk types of cervical cancer, but can cause genital warts).

Nine-valent vaccine: It can prevent HPV 16,18,6,11,31,33,45,52,58 nine subtypes, can prevent 90% of cervical cancer.

If women have been vaccinated with bivalent or tetravalent vaccines, they can still choose to vaccinate nine-valent vaccines.

Question 3: What age groups are suitable for vaccination?

The recommended inoculation age for bivalent vaccines is between 9 and 25 years old. The recommended inoculation age for tetravalent vaccines is between 20 and 45. The approval of the listed nine-valent HPV vaccine is applicable to women aged 16 to 26 years.

The vaccine is usually administered in 3 injections for a total of 6 months to be effective. The bivalent vaccine was administered at 0, 1 and 6 months; the tetravalent, 9-valent vaccine was administered at 0, 2 and 6 months.

The bivalent vaccine is about 600 yuan per needle; the quadrivalent vaccine is about 800 yuan per needle; the 9-valent vaccine is about 1,500 yuan per needle. According to their own age and economic conditions, choose to inoculate different types of HPV vaccine.

Question 4: Can a male person be vaccinated against this vaccine?

The nine-valent vaccine can be used to prevent cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer, anal cancer, genital warts, persistent infections, precancerous lesions or atypical lesions caused by HPV.

Although there is no clear evidence that men’s vaccination with the HPV vaccine has much effect on the prevention of cervical cancer in sexual partners, it can prevent male genital warts, which are also HPV-induced sexually transmitted diseases.

At present, most countries and the World Health Organization have not recommended male vaccination, but Australian boys are given free injections.

Q5: Is cervical cancer caused by the virus?

For most people, being infected with the HPV virus is like a “cold cervix” and not too nervous and scary.

Women who have sex have been infected with HPV for 40% to 80% of their lifetime. However, more than 80% of HPV infections will naturally clear within 8 months, and only a few persistent high-risk HPV infections may cause cancer more than 2 years.

Question 6: What are the contraindications for the use of Nine-valent vaccines?

Disabling hypersensitivity to active ingredients or any excipient component of the 9-valent HPV vaccine or the tetravalent HPV vaccine;

Those who have symptoms of hypersensitivity after injection of a 9-valent HPV vaccine or a 4-valent HPV vaccine should not be revaccinated.

Q7: Do you need to test for HPV before vaccination?

HPV can be repeatedly infected, it is generally believed that there is no need to detect whether the body has HPV infection before vaccination.

However, from the doctor’s point of view, if infected with HPV or cervical lesions caused by this, otherwise another matter, or after the treatment is negative and then better inoculation, but you can also inoculate while treatment.

Q8: Can I still vaccinate if I have been infected or have had cervical lesions and are cured?

HPV vaccination can reduce the recurrence rate of the disease after HPV infection or the resulting cure of cervical lesions. In particular, several classes of HPV viruses that can be prevented by current vaccines have not been infected. Inoculation is still beneficial.

Q9: Can pregnant women and lactating women be vaccinated? How to do pregnancy after vaccination?

At present, there are no relevant data for pregnant women and breast-feeding women. It is not recommended that pregnant women and breast-feeding women be vaccinated against cervical cancer for the time being. This part of the women can wait for a period of time, such as the fetus born and weaned again after vaccination HPV vaccine.

No vaccine has been found to have adverse effects on the fetus. Therefore, if you accidentally become pregnant within 6 months of vaccination, you can closely observe continuing pregnancy.

Q10: Sex life should not be vaccinated?

Even if you have sex, you can still get a vaccination.

The previous point of view is that after women have sex, the chance of being infected with HPV increases dramatically. If these women are vaccinated, they are “not very good” in statistical analysis and “not worthwhile” in terms of economy.

However, it is just not worthwhile and it is not without medical value.

Question 11: How many years can the vaccine be administered?

Studies in Northern Europe have shown that there is no problem in the protection capacity after 10 years of vaccination. Mathematicians have established a mathematical model that shows that there is no problem in protecting ability after 50 years of vaccination.

Therefore, it is a conclusion that the protection ability is maintained for 10 years after vaccination, and 50 years is a deduction, whether it is correct or not, and it needs time to test it.

Question 12: After vaccination, is it also used for cervical cancer screening?

Regardless of whether to inoculate a bivalent vaccine, a quadrivalent vaccine, or a 9-valent vaccine, regular screening is still required after vaccination.

Existing vaccines, including the 9-valent vaccine, do not prevent all high-risk HPVs. Vaccination against cervical cancer is a primary prevention and control (prevention of illness), while screening is secondary prevention and treatment (treatment of initial disease).

The second line of defense must not be withdrawn because the first line of defense is good (actually not perfect).

Q13: What are the adverse reactions after the HPV vaccination?

Reports of serious adverse reactions after HPV vaccination were reported abroad, such as physical pain, paresthesias, memory impairments and even paralysis and death, and class actions were initiated in Japan. The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare had called on the public to stop vaccination.

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